Why AIT?

Currently, AIT of terrestrial farm animals, feral animals and wildlife is a global effort of  members of the value chain (producers, input suppliers, traders, slaughter enterprises, product processors, wholesale and retail traders), the competent veterinary and food safety authorities, livestock and support services as well as their regional and global organizations (OIE, WHO, FAO, WTO, ICAR and others).  AIT offers multiple chances to manage and improve the different fields of application and requires dedication so that the incremental costs are more than offset by incremental benefits:

 

Subsector

Activity

Examples

Animal Health

Control contagious and infectious diseases

Rinderpest, CBPP, PPR; FMD, Class. and Afr. Swine Fever, Newcastle disease; Bluetongue, EBL, BHV1, BVD/MD, Schmallenberg Virus; Sheep pox, Goat pox   

Control zoonoses

TB, Brucellosis, Avian Influenza, Rabies, TSE, Dermatophytosis (Ringworm)

Control pollution from parasite and vector-borne diseases

Parasites: Trichinosis, worm infestations, liverfluke;

Vector-borne diseases: Tick-borne diseases, trypanosomiasis, Rift Valley Fever, African Horse Sickness etc. 

Control import, transit and export of animals, food and other products of animal origin

Export certification, control of imports, transit and lairage/storage

Food Safety

Assure freedom from zoonoses

Salmonella in poultry, pigs and ruminants; monitor disease hazards from highly infective fowl diseases

Control animal food hygiene and residues

Control wholesomeness of food and drug residues e.g. in sport horses

Animal Welfare

Control housing

Poultry, pigs, calves and adult animals of the bovine species, horses, zoo animals

Control transport

Poultry, pigs, calves and adult animals of the bovine species, horses, zoo animals

Control slaughter

Poultry, pigs, calves and adult animals of the bovine species, horses, zoo animals

Environmental Degradation/Pollution

Control stocking densities

Livestock units per ha, ha per livestock unit

Control soil pollution for undesirable nutrients, parasites and pathogens

Excess nitrate entry into soil and run-off into drainage; spread of internal and external parasites (worms, trichinae)

Conservation of Animal Genetic Diversity

Monitoring rare and  endangered breeds

Farm livestock monitored through national/regional focal points and FAO

Government conservation programs for rare/endangered breeds

Stock Theft

Marking, uniquely identifying, registering and tracing livestock

Pastoralist areas in Africa, Middle East, South Asia;

Herd management/ production recording

Supporting herd, feeding, reproduction and milking management and recording

Productivity (products, reproduction, fitness– productive life, udder and general health): regional, national and international comparisons (ICAR)

Breeding

Dam and Sire recording

Avoid inbreeding 

Genetic performance, dam and sire evaluation

Compensatory and selective mating

Genomic and conventional breeding value estimation:  regional, national and international comparisons (Interbull)

Sector Governance

Admin. of animal related

Govt. databases

Animal Health monitoring

Food safety monitoring

Subsidy administration

Pollution control